While cyberspace provides major opportunities for innovation, economic progress and access to information, it also entails new vulnerabilities. The volume and variety of cyber-attacks and costs of cyber-crime damage are increasing at a surprisingly rapid pace every year. The 2021 AXA Future Risk Report found that experts view Cyber the #2 top risk, second only to climate change.

In this context, better understanding and estimating cyber risks is crucial to help develop informed strategies, coupling prevention with resilience to damage.

The latest AXA Research Fund publication brings together perspectives from academics, business and organizations on the changing dynamics of the cyber landscape, with a view towards the mitigation of the associated risks and, in doing so, protect what matters.

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Building Cyber Resilience: Threats, Enablers and Anticipation

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Chapter 1: Security and Privacy: Friends or Foe?

Our increasing dependency on technology makes us more vulnerable to cyber threats such as identity theft and email hacks. Solutions to these risks result in techniques that are often invasive and seem to compromise privacy.

Are security and privacy opposing goals? Can we balance the dual-use character of cyber technologies? How should we address the societal impact of cyber security measures? 

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Chapter 2: Mitigating Cyber-Risk – from Critical Infrastructures to Quantum

The future of cyber security is shaped by the ever-changing nature of cyber-space coupled with the computing speed of today’s machinery, and the acceleration of artificial intelligence and machine learning capabilities. This provides increased opportunities for malevolent attacks.

In this environment, are we able to retrofit resilience into existing critical infrastructures built with traditional risk-based approaches? How can we tackle the security challenges linked to cloud-based operations?  Can we prevent our machine learning algorithms from being fooled by another artificial intelligence? Will our information still be secure once the quantum computational power becomes strong enough to decrypt every protection we set? 

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Chapter 3: Cyber-Resilience of Organizations and States

Building cyber resilience entails action from all economic players – the private sector, states and international bodies.

What does that mean for private organizations? How can the private sector partner to be collectively more resilient? How is cyber-space being regulated, if at all? What are the success factors to move forward collectively in the arena of cyber security? What is the role and stance of states?

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Chapter 4: Insuring Cyber-Risk – a Shift in Paradigm

The insurance sector is as a key player in cyber-risk management and the goal of cyber resilience.

What is the current state of cyber insurance market? What new challenges are new technologies such as connected and autonomous vehicles bringing into the insurance business? What are the major challenges for insurers and what are the current limits they need to supersede to succeed?

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Chapter 5: Future Scenarios and Trends

What will cyber threats be like in a decade? How can science fiction and strategic foresight help us better envision cyber resilience for tomorrow and what, according to experts, are the future regional cyber trends?

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Contributors & their articles

J. Peter Burgess - AXA Chairholder

The Double-Edged Sword of Cyber Security

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Bryan Ford - AXA Chairholder

Privacy and Accountability Need Not Be Opposing Goals

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Giovianni Sansavini - AXA Chairholder

Designing and Retrofitting Resilience into Critical Infrastructures

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Robert Deng - AXA Chairholder

New Strategies to Enhance Cyber Security in the Cloud

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David Rios - AXA Chairholder

AI and Machine Learning: Defence Mechanisms That Need to Be Defended

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Antonio Acín - AXA Chairholder

Quantum: An Additional Threat?

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Arnaud Tanguy – AXA Group Chief Security Officer

Building Cyber-Resilient Organizations

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Heyrick Bond Gunning – Chief Executive Officer of S-RM

Cyber Resilience in The Post-Pandemic World – An Urgent Need for Data-Sharing and Co-Operation

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Nicolas Arpagian – Cybersecurity Strategy Director of Trend Micro

Cyber-Ecosystems Against Cyber-Crime

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Juhan Lepassaar - Executive Director of the European Union Agency for Cyber Security (ENISA)

Organizing and Regulating Cyber-Space

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Guillaume Poupard - Director General of the National Cyber Security Agency of France (ANSSI)

Organizing and Regulating Cyber-Space

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Libby Benet – AXA XL Chief Underwriting Officer of Financial lines

The Challenges of Cyber-Risk Insurance

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David Williams – AXA UK Managing Director of Underwriting & Technical Services

A Shift in Risk-Modelling Techniques for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles

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Caroline Hillairet - AXA Joint Research Initiative

Accumulation, Dependence and Extreme Scenario Building: Preconditions for Cyber-Risk Insurability

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Olivier Lopez - AXA Joint Research Initiative

Accumulation, Dependence and Extreme Scenario Building: Preconditions for Cyber-Risk Insurability

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Olivier Desbiey – AXA Group Head of Foresight

Strategic Foresight and Sci-Fi to Help Better Understand Future Threats

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Cécile Wendling – AXA Group Head of Security Strategy and Awarness

Anticipating the Future of Cyber-Attacks: Tales from The Future and Real-Life Points of Caution

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Mathieu Cousin - AXA Group Threat Anticipation Lead

Anticipating the Future of Cyber-Attacks: Tales from The Future and Real-Life Points of Caution

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Lou-Anne Ducos – AXA Group Security Analyst (intern)

Anticipating the Future of Cyber-Attacks: Tales from The Future and Real-Life Points of Caution

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